The prostate gland is an organ that is situated at the neck of the urinary bladder. The first part of the urethra is surrounded by the gland. The urethra is the passage through which the urine passes out of the bladder for excretion. The prostate gland produces some of the substances that are found normally in semen like minerals and sugar. Another of the prostrate gland’s functions is the control of the urine by pressing against that part of the urethra that it surrounds.
Prostate cancer is formed as a malignant tumor. It consists of cells from the prostate gland. Prostrate cancer usually does not produce any symptoms. The symptoms are associated mainly with advanced form of the disease. The cancer usually grows slowly and does not spread beyond the gland for many years. It remains confined to that area. The advancement of the cancer will occur and it spreads beyond the prostate into the surrounding tissues. The cancer can also metastasize to other parts of the body like the lungs, liver and bones. This is known as metastasis. The symptoms and signs are more pronounced and usually associated with the advanced form of the disease.
The disease is the second leading cause of cancer of death after lung cancer across the globe. Thus there is an inherent need that men above 40 should regularly undergo screening for prostate cancer, especially sine it does not show up before advanced stages. Genetic influences, advancing age, hormonal effects, and environmental factors like industrial products, toxins and chemicals are the factors that contribute to the incidence of prostate cancer. The risk of developing prostate cancer is high in the case of men above 40 years of age. It is very rare in men below 40 years of age. There have been some studies that suggest that the chance of men over the age of 80 getting prostate cancer is 50 to 80%.
Black American men have a high risk of developing prostate cancer. The risk is less in white American and Japanese men. It has been observed that the risk of getting this disease rises in Japanese men who have migrated to America instead of living in their own country. The disease is also more common among members of the same family. But the genes associated with prostate cancer have not been identified.
There are environmental factors that lead to the high incidence of prostate cancer like smoking and taking fat rich foods. The male hormone testosterone also has a role to play in the incidence of prostate cancer. The higher the level of testosterone, the higher the chances of contracting prostrate cancer. Toxins and substances from industrial sources may also lead to the risk of developing prostate cancer but the same have not yet been proved. Most prostate cancers are detected while conducting a routine blood test abbreviated as the PSA. As the cancer increases in size it presses against the urethra and the patient experiences problem urinating. Some patients may experience inflammation while urinating or blood in the urine. These are the various factors in the cause of prostate cancer.